2014考研英语(一)真题及答案解析

 Section I Use of Language

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(S) for each numbered blank and mark A, B ,C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 Points)

  As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can't remember 1 we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance's name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain 2 , we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments." 3 seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a(an) 4 impact on our professional, social, and personal 5 .

  Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there's actually a lot that can be done. It 6 out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental 7 can significantly improve our basic cognitive 8 . Thinking is essentially a 9 of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to 10 in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited. 11 , because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate 12 mental effort.

  Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step 13 and developed the first "brain training program" designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental 14 .

  The Web-based program 15 you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps 16 of your progress and provides detailed feedback 17 your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it 18 modifies and enhances the games you play to 19 on the strengths you are developing--much like a(n) 20 exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use.

  1.[A]where[B]when[C]that[D]why

  2.[A]improves[B]fades[C]recovers[D]collapses

  3.[A]If[B]Unless[C]Once[D]While

  4.[A]uneven[B]limited[C]damaging[D]obscure

  5.[A]wellbeing[B]environment[C]relationship[D]outlook

  6.[A]turns[B]finds[C]points[D]figures

  7.[A]roundabouts[B]responses[C]workouts[D]associations

  8.[A]genre[B]functions[C]circumstances[D]criterion

  9.[A]channel[B]condition[C]sequence[D]process

  10.[A]persist[B]believe[C]excel[D]feature

  11.[A]Therefore[B]Moreover[C]Otherwise[D]However

  12.[A]according to[B]regardless of[C]apart from[D]instead of

  13.[A]back[B]further[C]aside[D]around

  14.[A]sharpness[B]stability[C]framework[D]flexibility

  15.[A]forces[B]reminds[C]hurries[D]allows

  16.[A]hold[B]track[C]order[D]pace

  17.[A] to[B]with[C]for[D]on

  18.[A]irregularly[B]habitually[C]constantly[D]unusually

  19.[A]carry[B]put[C]build[D]take

  20.[A]risky[B]effective[C]idle[D]familiar

  答案:1-5 ABDCA

  6-10 ACBDC

  11-15 DABAD

  16-20 BDCCB

  1. [标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和连词辨析

  [选项分析] 本题考查连词。根据上下文意思,首先可以排除[B][C][D]。这句话中 where 引导一个状语语从句,主要是说记不清把钥匙放在哪里了。

  2. [标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和动词辨析

  [选项分析] As the brain 2 we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments这句话的意思是“由于大脑 2 我们称这些现象为“瞬间性老年痴呆”,由此可以排除[A] 和 [C]。[D]collapse意为:使倒塌,使崩溃,不符合题意。fades考察熟词僻意,通常意思为褪色,逝去。还有衰老的意思,这里就考察是衰老的意思。从前文可以看出,文章讲的是随着年龄增长,大脑衰老。所以选[B]

  3. [标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 逻辑衔接题

  [选项分析] [A] if 表示假设“如果”。[B] Unless “除非,如果不”。[C]Once “一旦”。[D]While,“虽然,然而”表转折。这句话的意思是虽然表面上看起来没什么,但是危害很大,前后位转折关系,所以选D。

  4. [标准答案] [C]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析

  [选项分析] 这四个选项均为形容词,[A] 表示“不均匀”, [B] 表示“有限的”, [C] 表示“有破坏性的,损坏的”, [D] 表示“模糊的,晦涩的”。这句话意思是这种精神能量的缺失会给我们带来……的影响。根据上下文的意思,可以排除 [A] 和 [D]。而“有限的影响”显然不足以表达危害的严重性,故可以排除[B] 选项。[C] “带来有害的影响”最符合作者意图。

  5. [标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析

  [选项分析] 本句话含义是这种精神能量的缺失会给我们的职业、社交还有个人……带来有害的影响。[A] wellbeing “幸福”。[B]environment “环境”。[C] relationship “关系”。[D] outlook “展望”。and连接若干名词,这些名词应该为同一类,职业、社交都是和个人相关,排除[B] 和[D],[C] personal relationship就是social的意思,不能重复,选择[A],个人幸福。

  6. [标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 固定搭配

  [选项分析] [A] it turns out that “原来,其实” 。[B]it finds out that“本文发现”。[C] it points out that“指出”。[D] it figures out that“本文发现”。It代表神经科学,这句话的意思是越来越多的精神学家们都表示,大脑其实跟肌肉一样需要练习运动。这里给出的是神经科学的结论,因此选择it turns out that

  7. [标准答案] [C]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析

  [选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A] roundabouts迂回路线。[B]responses回应。[C]workouts锻炼,练习。[D]associations协会。[C]workouts锻炼,练习与前文出现的exercise都有“锻炼,练习”的意思,近义词复现,所以选[C]

  8. [标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析

  [选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A]genre类型,种类。[B]functions功能。[C]circumstances情况,环境。[D]criterion批评判断的标准、准则。这句话的意思是正确的智力运动能极大地提高我们最基本的认知功能,根据语义,选择[B]functions功能。

  9. [标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析

  [选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A] channel通道,频道。[B]condition条件。[C]sequence顺序,序列。[D]process过程,步骤。根据常识,思考是一个过程,并且通过脑神经相互接触来完成,其他选项表示渠道、序列、条件,均不符合常识。因此正确答案是表示过程的[D]选项。这句话的意思是思考是大脑神经连接必要的过程。

  10. [标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和动词辨析

  [选项分析] 这四个选项均为动词。[A] persist坚持。[B] believe相信。[C] excel超过。[D] feature特色。本句句意,在某种程度来讲,我们在进行神经连接(直接影响人的聪明程度)方面的特殊能力是与生俱来的。excel 有超过擅长的意思,表示在某个方面出众,放在此处符合题意,因此正确答案为[B]。

  11. [标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 逻辑衔接题

  [选项分析] 本题需要的是一个副词,而且位于句首,因此考察的是句关系。通过前后句意义来定答案,前一句强调的是智力是与生俱来的(inherited),而后一句则认为是可以通过脑力活动(mental effort)会有所波动,两句意义明显相反,故正确答案为[D] However。

  12. [标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和短语辨析

  [选项分析] 本题并不难,可以理解为:智力可以……脑力活动得到提升或出现波动。 [B]regardless of “不管,不顾”不合逻辑。[C]apart from“除……之外”也不合适。[D]instead of “代替”明显不符。故[A]为正确答案。

  13. [标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和固定搭配

  [选项分析] 本题考察的是固定搭配:take a step ……,能搭配只有A和C,分别指“采取进一步措施”和“让到一边去”,无论从逻辑上还是从句意上都是A符合。

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